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Fat Necrosis

Fat necrosis of the newborn is an uncommon. It is characterized by firm, erythematous nodules and plaques over the trunk, arms, buttocks, thighs, and cheeks of full-term newborns. It is a transient condition of unknown origin; however, hypercalcemia may be a potentially life-threatening complication of this otherwise self-healing process. Presents as a circumscribed tumor. Anamnestically often a preceding trauma or surgical intervention. Histologically, cystic and fibrotic foam cells (macrophages) are often present. The most common etiology is trauma. It can be a localized, firm area with scarring that can mimic a breast carcinoma. However, fat necrosis consists of irregular steatocytes with no peripheral nuclei and intervening pink amorphous necrotic material and inflammatory cells, including foreign body giant cells responding to the necrotic fat cells. Sometimes the normal fat cells in the breast become round, firm lumps made up of damaged fatty tissue It is postulated that cold or stress-induced injury to immature fat results in the development of solidification and necrosis.

If the area is large the process can be speeded up by surgical exploration. The lump is usually painless, and the skin around it may look red, bruised or dimpled. Breast lumps are either benign (noncancerous) or malignant.SCFN usually runs a self-limited course, but it may be complicated by hypercalcemia and other metabolic abnormalities. benign process in full-term infants or postmature neonates who experienced a perinatal distress.Fat necrosis is a rare, temporary, self-limited pathology affecting adipose tissue of full-term or postmature neonates. This entity usually occurs in the first weeks following a complicated delivery. Even though spontaneous resolution without sequelae is the norm, patients should be followed for development of late complications of Fat necrosis.

Cause of Fat Necrosis

Common causes of Fat Necrosis

  • Fat composition or metabolism may be present.
  • Local pressure trauma during delivery from macrosomia.
  • Poor blood circulation.
  • Cephalopelvic disproportion.
  • Use of midcavity forceps or vacuum extraction.
  • Breast lumps include fibrocystic breast changes.

Symptoms of Fat Necrosis

Common Symptoms of Fat Necrosis

  • Pain.
  • A painless lump that is firm or hard, with irregular borders (edges).
  • Spontaneous nipple discharge.
  • Nipple changes.
  • Retraction (pulling inward).
  • Enlargement.
  • Itching.

Treatment of Fat Necrosis

Common Treatment of Fat Necrosis

  • Require needle aspiration.
  • The effectiveness of vitamin E , vitamin B - 6 , and herbal preparations
  • Surgery and radiation are considered local therapies because they directly treat the tumor, breast, lymph nodes, or other specific regions.
  • Fluid loading and calcium-wasting diuretics.
  • Antibiotics treatment( Furosemide, Prednisone,).